Relations with America

In the Directorate of North America we promote and defend the interests and objectives of Peru in the political-diplomatic sphere with the countries of Canada, United States and Mexico, which are the countries that concentrate the largest community of Peruvian nationals abroad, which is the reason we contribute to develop a migration and protection of the Peruvian communities policy, in coordination with the General-Directorate of Peruvian Communities abroad.

Bilateral relations between Peru and the United States

Relations began in the early nineteenth century. In 1824, the United States appointed its first Consul in Lima, before the nascent Republic of Peru: William Tudor, who became the only representative of its interests in our country until 1827.

A milestone in the bilateral relationship dates back to 1826 when the United States officially recognized Peru and after that James Cooley arrived to our country, appointed by the Secretary of State Henry Clay, as the first Charge d’Affairs of the United States in Peru. In 1846, in view of the growing importance of the ties between both countries, Peru appointed Juan Ignacio de Osma as its first Plenipotentiary Minister in the United States.

During the twenty-first century, the relations with the United States have a new beginning and the issues of bilateral agenda were extended, a point of reference of the relations in this century was the visit of President George Bush in march 2002, which help to promote the strengthening of democratic institutionality, the opening of markets and the negotiation of a FTA, the investment in human development, the fight against narcoterrorism, corruption and organized crime, as well as cooperation in general.

Bilateral relations between Peru and Canada

The first Canadian Ambassador to present Credentials in our country was Jean-François Léon Henri Laureys, in 1944. Bilateral relations increased in the 1990s, when Canada became more actively involved in the Hemisphere, which materialized through its entrance as a full member of the Organization of American States.

Currently, bilateral relations are going through an exceptional moment which translates into the implementation of an intense cooperation agenda. The main reviewing space of bilateral relation is the Peru-Canada Consultation and Bilateral Coordination Mechanism, whose seventh edition was held in the city of Lima in September 2016.

Bilateral relations between Peru and Mexico

These relations were established with the “Friendship, Commerce and Navigation Treaties” signed in the city of Lima on 16th November, 1832. In the last years this relationship has evolved, from the exchange of the highest levels visits, towards a Strategic Association mechanism.

Likewise, the dynamic granted by the bilateral relationship between Peru and Mexico in the framework of the Pacific Alliance is undeniable, an integration scheme of which both are founding countries.

It is also particular important the bilateral cooperation in security matters, with special focus on various areas of common interest such as the fight against organized and international crimes. The III technical meeting of this Group was held on October 5 and 6, 2016.

Peru in Central America and the Caribean

Peruvian relations with Central American states are based on principles such as commitment to democracy, rule of law and advancement of human rights; relations are also grounded on a common interest in the signing of Free Trade Agreements and the inclusion of Peru in the Central American Integration System (SICA) as Regional Observer Member. We share common issues and interests such as regional security, fight against drug trafficking and other illicit activities and the conservation and sustainable use of the environment, as well as technical and cultural cooperation.

The Bureau of Central America and the Caribbean is the section responsible for relations with states in this subregion. Its mission is to promote and defend the interests and objectives of Peru in the political and diplomatic context of bilateral relations with Central American and Caribbean countries, as well as to strengthen Peru’s international position through more dynamic relations with nations in this region.

Peru in South America

South America, being the immediate setting of Peru’s projected interests, constitutes a priority within our foreign policy. The established relationships with South American countries are focused primarily on topics such as democratic governance, adherence to human rights, mutual trust and security, and defence of the environment.

The Bureau of South America is the section responsible for relations with states in this subregion, and its mission is to promote and defend the interests and objectives of Peru in the political and diplomatic context of the bilateral relations, as well as to create an atmosphere of peace, trust and stability to promote economic growth, human development, social inclusion and eradication of poverty.

Unasur and mechanisms of South American coordination

The Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) is an organization imbued with international legal personality, whose constitutive treaty was signed on 23 May 2008 at the Third Summit of Heads of State, held in Brasilia, Brasil.

Its objective is to build, in a consensual manner, a space of cultural, social, economic and political integration between peoples, with primary focus on political dialogue, social policies, education, infrastructure, finance and the environment, among other concerns, as a way to eliminate socio-economic inequality, achieve social inclusion and citizen participation, strengthen democracy and reduce the asymmetries in the context of upholding the sovereignty and independence of states.

The Bureau of UNASUR and Mechanisms of South American Coordination is the section responsible for the relations with countries through these mechanisms, and has as its mission to promote and defend the interests and objectives of Peru in the context of political agreements of UNASUR and other mechanisms, as well as to position our country within the multilateral zone and reach a better social inclusion.

Its main task is to search for consensus agreements and concrete plans with regards to issues of major regional interest related to democracy, peace and development, such as efforts to eliminate socio-economic inequality and achieve social inclusion.

Border integration and development

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs created within its organizational structure the Bureau of Border Integration and Development, whose purpose is to aid the decentralization efforts of the Executive Secretary of the National Council of Borders Development with activities to develop border regions and facilitate the integration processes with bordering countries, in order to establish a National Policy of Border Integration and Development.

The establishment of a National Policy of Border Integration and Development has required continued efforts to strengthen its institutional framework, develop specific regulations, formulate policy guidelines, develop an intervention methodology, commit finance, and manage model projects of multi sectoral responsibility in border regions.

Relations with Europe

The General Bureau of Europe promotes and defends Peruvian interests in the political and diplomatic context of bilateral relations with European countries, in areas such as social cooperation, economic and social development, cultural and academic exchange, protection of the environment, security, economic and commercial exchange, and discussion on the issue of migration. The Bureau also maintains and deepens these relations through the promotion of political dialogue, negotiations on issues of national interest, official visits, bilateral consultation mechanisms, and summits of Heads of State, among other activities.

Peru and the European Union

The Bureau of Europe One is in charge of relations with members of the European Union: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Its mission is to promote and defend Peruvian interests with the European Union, and with each individual state.

The Bureau manages the political issues to be institutionally discussed in the European Council, European Commission and European Parliament.

Peru and Europe outside of the EU

The Bureau of Europe Two is in charge of relations with countries outside of the European Union. Its mission is to promote and defend Peruvian interests in the context of bilateral relations with: Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Montenegro, Monaco, Norway, Moldavia, Russia, San Marino, Serbia, Sovereign Military Order of Malta, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine and Vatican City.

Relations with Asia and Oceania

The importance of the Pacific Basin in the international scenario and the consolidation of the Asian countries as economic powers is a fact that the Peruvian Ministry of Foreign Affairs has taken into consideration to define and design its external actions searching greater opportunities of development through the access to new markets, investment resources, transfer of technologies and cooperation in various fields.

The Directorate General of Asia and Oceania is in charge to promote and to defend the interests and objectives of Peru in the political-diplomatic sphere of bilateral relations with the countries of Asia and Oceania, as well as to coordinate with the relevant sectors the participation of Peru within the framework of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and in the economic for a of the Pacific Basin.

Asia and Oceania

The Directorate of Asia and Oceania is responsible to promote and to defend the interests and objectives of Peru in the political-diplomatic sphere of bilateral relations with the countries of Asia and Oceania

Peru has achieved relevant objectives, with the main countries of Asia, such as the consolidation of the strategic partners relations, through the signing of Free Trade Agreements with the People’s Republic of China and the Republic of Korea; with Japan, the signing of an Economic Partnership Agreement and the Agreement on the Promotion and Protection of Investments; and with India, Peru is a step away of the negotiation of a Trade Agreement in order to further promote the current trade exchange of $1.6 billion dollars.

The strategic geographical location of the Oceania countries in the Pacific Ocean Basin make them partners, as in the case of Australia and New Zealand, of international agreements and fora of great importance to Peru, such as the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), and the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership (P4). Thus the coincidences in positions in the multilateral sphere and the potentialities in different areas of bilateral relation are grounds which determine that the links between Peru and the countries of this region increase year by year.

Peru also maintains diplomatic relations with other countries of Asia and the Pacific Basin, such as Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines, Republic of the Union of Myanmar, Mongolia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Lao, People’s Democratic Republic of Korea, Bangladesh, Indonesia, East Timor, Malaysia, Brunei Darussalam, Maldives, Cambodia, Papua New Guinea, Republic of Fiji, Republic of Vanuatu.


When the 45thanniversary of diplomatic relations between Peru and China was completed in 2016, the Peruvian Government has proposed to strengthen the bilateral relationship, with special emphasis on the political content of the Strategic Association maintained by both countries since 2013. In this regard, it is intended to guide the relationship beyond the commercial economic sphere, increasing mutual trust between the two Governments through the exchange of visits of the highest level and the treatment of global and regional issues of common interest.

In September 2016 President Kuczynski paid a State Visit to China, the first since he took office as Head of State. In addition, the Chinese Foreign Minister made an official visit to our country on October 5th to prepare the State Visit made by the President of China to our country after his participation in the APEC 2016 Leaders’ Summit.

Strategic Partnership

On April 6th, 2013, President Xi announced that relations with Peru constitute an Integral Strategic Partnership, which indicates the mutual will to deepen, in the long term, bilateral relations in all fields. In Latin America, China's strategic partners are Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Venezuela and, since two years, Peru.

Economic and trading relationships

China is the main mining investor in Peru, with one third of the total number of projects and the first trading partner. As it is known, the strategic interest of China in our country lies in the character of exporting source of natural resources: minerals; food, including seafood and timber; as well as in our central location in the South American subcontinent.


The beginning of diplomatic relations between Peru and the Republic of Korea was formalized on April 1st, 1963. The bilateral relationship is at an excellent level and with a promising perspective, with a positive agenda in its different spheres. The Strategic Partnership Agreement (2012), which followed the Free Trade Agreement (2011), has consolidated this shared vision.

Peru is the country of Latin America that receives more cooperation from Korea, which is more than 10 million dollars. In addition, the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) offers short training courses for senior Peruvian Officials in Seoul.

In recent years, the following areas of cooperation have been prioritized:

1. Technology transfer and co-production in the defense industry area.

2. Capacity building in science and technology, especially in information and communication science (ICT).

3. Infrastructure.

4. Environment.

5. Health.

6. Education and training of public officials.

Economic and trading relationships

• FTA: The Free Trade Agreement between Peru and Korea promotes the strengthening of trade relations. This agreement has generated a favorable framework and conditions for trade and investment between both countries, which encourages the development of more investments in the short, medium and long term.

• Commercial Exchange: In 2015, Peruvian exports to South Korea amounted to US $ 1,077.7 million, representing a decrease of -10.8% compared to 2014 and -36.4% compared to 2011.

In 2015, the trade balance has been deficient for Peru in US $ -124.2 million.


Peru was the first Latin American country to establish diplomatic relations with Japan and the first in South America to receive Japanese migration.

The Peruvian-Japanese relations are based on economic, cooperation and consular aspects. In economic terms, Japan is the fifth destination of our exports, and the second most important trading partner in Asia, after China. In geographical terms, the link with that country is due to our common membership in the Pacific Basin, a space around which we not only share intense trade but also a growing relationship in forums as APEC.

Japan's Official Development Assistance focuses on the following areas of joint work: environment and conservation; improvement of human resources; disaster prevention; social inclusion; infrastructure in local and regional governments; and agriculture. It is worth noting that Peruvian projects funded by Japanese cooperation in the energy and water sectors with reimbursable cooperation; and through donations with the new premises of the National Institute of Rehabilitation, the Macará binational bridge and four agreements on environmental protection and disasters.

Regarding the consular theme, in the decade of the 80’s of the last century there was a strong migration of the Peruvian Nikkei population to Japan. The Consulates of Peru in Tokyo and Nagoya provide services and legal and humanitarian assistance to Peruvian citizens with the purpose of facilitating their insertion into Japanese society.

Economic relations:

The Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) is a turning point for our relationship with Japan as it provides the opportunity to significantly increase trade and Japanese investment.

In the last ten years, the trade balance has been largely favorable to our country. Although the bulk of our exports are traditional products, there is an increase in non-traditional exports, particularly agro-industry exports.


Peru and New Zealand established diplomatic relations in 1972. The commercial links date back to 1850 with the signing of the Treaty of Friendship, Trade and Navigation.

Peru reopened its embassy in 1995 as part of its policy of approaching the countries of the Asia-Pacific region and closed it in 2010. New Zealand closed its embassy in Lima in 1990, a situation that has been maintained to date. However, there is a confluence of interests in the multilateral framework and expectations of bilateral cooperation and trade.


As of 2005, a program of cooperation was established in Peru through the English Language Training and Professional Training "English Language Training for Officials" (ELTO) in New Zealand to attend the APEC Summit in 2008 and the current Working Holiday agreement between Peru and New Zealand.

As of 2013, cooperation focused on three themes: the "Head of the HOMF Mission" Fund, the dairy project for the southern highlands of Peru and support for the training of public officials in English in preparation for APEC 2016.

Multilateral Forums:

Peru and New Zealand are members of APEC, FOCALAE, and Transpacific Partnership Agreement (TPP). New Zealand is an observer member of the Pacific Alliance. Both countries share common positions on issues of human rights and democracy, climate change, among others.


In the political field, Australia closed its embassy in Lima in 1996 and was reestablished in 2010. In order to boost and deepen the ties between both countries, as well as to generate new spaces for cooperation in various topics of common interest such as the environment, education and the transfer of science and technology, among others, held the first meeting of the Mechanism for Political Consultations and Bilateral Cooperation with Australia in Lima in December 2012.

By the end of 2014 and early 2015, several top Australian authorities have visited Peru. Chancellor Julie Bishop participated, together with Foreign Trade Minister Andrew Robb, at COP 20 held in Lima in December 2014. The President of the Federal Chamber of Representatives of Australia, Mrs. Bronwyn Bishop, visited Peru in January 2015; and the Minister of the Environment, Mr. Gregory Hunt, did so in March 2015.

The link between Peru and Australia has the following priorities:

• Education, not only at the university level but also in the field of technical education in the context of the need to diversify the Peruvian economy.

• Connectivity, particularly the need to improve air and maritime connectivity as a basic tool to promote trade, investment and tourism; and,

• Business meetings, with the aim of identifying projects of reciprocal interest.

In 2015, bilateral trade reached US $ 233 million.

Peru in Africa, the middle east and the Gulf Countries

At present, Peru maintains diplomatic relations with 37 countries of Africa y is accredited as an Observer to the African Union and the League of Arab States. We also participate in the Africa-South America (ASA) forum. Peru was the host for the III South American- Arab Countries (ASPA) forum held on 1st and 2nd October 2012.

The Directorate-General for Africa, the Middle East and the Gulf Countries is the area in charge of bilateral relations with the countries of these regions.

The Directorate-General’s mission is to defend the interests and objectives of Peru in the political-diplomatic sphere of bilateral relations with the African, Middle East and Arabian Gulf countries as well as in the multilateral and bi-regional fora in which these States and Peru participate.

In relation to the Sixth Policy of the National Agreement (Acuerdo Nacional) and with the 2nd Strategic Axis of the Peruvian Foreign Policy on the opening of Peru to the World, the commitment of the General Directorate is mainly: • To progressively increase the presence of Peru in Africa, the Middle East and the Arabian Gulf. To contribute to the strengthening of peace and security in these regions – and, hence in the World- in the appropriate fora and through policies that prioritize respect to the Humanitarian International Law and favor measures leading to implement political reforms aimed at ensuring respect to the Human Rights and to the representative Democracy.

• In the bilateral sphere, we seek to privilege horizontal cooperation, trade promotion and attract investment in strategic sectors, according to the capacities of our partners on priority topics for Peru, mainly in energy and hydrocarbons and, more specifically, in natural and liquefied gas-, renewable energies, infrastructure, water resources management, agroindustry and tourism.

The General-Directorate is composed of officials and experts who work in two specialized areas: • Africa

• Middle East and the Gulf countries.

Peru in Africa

Africa is a dynamic player in a world context of permanent political, social and economic transformations and plays an increasingly important role in international relations.

The African continent has 54 countries, or 25 per cent of the world’s countries, a population of approximately one thousand millions of inhabitants, representing one-sixth part of the world’s population, as well as having a strategic geographical location, all of which gives it an outstanding role in the international system.

The ties between Peru and the African continent date back to the historical periods of the Conquest and Viceroyalty from which evidence the presence and the footprint of the African migrant and our culture (music, dance, gastronomy, language) and the heritage of an Afro-descendant in the country.

The Directorate of Africa is the area in charge for relations with the countries of this región and to strengthen the presence of Peru in the African continent.

The mission of this Directorate is to promote and to defend the interests and objectives of Peru in the political-diplomatic sphere of bilateral relations with the African countries as well as in the multilateral and bi-regional fora in which these States and Peru participate such as the Africa-South America Cooperation Forum (ASA) or through the participation of Peru as Member Observer of the African Union (AU) or the follow-up of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) among others.

Peru has resident Embassies in: Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Ghana and South Africa, as well as Honorary Consuls in Sudan, Tunisia, Ghana and four cities in Morocco. We also have concurrent Embassies: South Africa with Mozambique; Algeria with Tunisia and Libya, and Morocco with Mauritania in the framework of the Peruvian foreign policy aimed to a major representation of Peru through the opening of new consular and diplomatic missions.

Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores del Perú © 2017
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